Comparing One-part vs Two-part Chemical Grout for Sewer Repair

Comparing One-part vs Two-part Chemical Grout for Sewer Repair

We are often asked to discuss the differences between using one-part and two-part chemical grout for manhole and lateral line repair. Obviously, we are a bit biased when it comes to using polyurethane (two-part) vs permeation (one-part) grout, however we are a provider of both, but only in the right applications.  That being said, we understand grout and we understand that each grout has its strengths and weaknesses and are situationally appropriate.   This article will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using both for the purpose of sewer repair. In order to address the applicative potential of permeation and polyurethane grouts, we look at each aspect of the polymers, from chemical characteristics to installation requirements to costs.

Chemical Characteristics and Definitions

URETEK Polymer Injection Groundwater RestrictionPermeation grout is a direct pressure injection of a chemical fluid grout to fill spaces between soil particles without causing excessive movement or fracturing of the soil formation.  The one-part grout travels through a soil profile to permeate and densify the contact soil mass with a slight expansion of 2-3% of initial volume. The permeation grout binds as an open cell formation.

Polyurethane grout is a hydro-insensitive plural component grout that expands as a consequence of a chemical reaction.  The two-part grout sets and alters the physical properties of a geologic mass, traveling through a soil profile initially by permeation and then by densification due to an expansive exothermic reaction.  The polyurethane grout binds as a closed cell formation and has expansive qualities of 15 to 22 times initial volume.

Chemical Characteristics of Permeation and Polyurethane Grouts Comparison

Components  One-Part Permeation Grout Two-Part Polyurethane Grout
Water Reactive Qualities Hydrophobic, Hydrophilic Hydro-Insensitive
Soil Densification Process Permeation and Slight Expansion Permeation, Exothermic Expansion of Closed Cell Formation
Expansive Qualities 2-3% Expansion 1500 – 2200% Expansion
Cellular Aspects Open- Cell Closed-Cell
Cure Time Variable depending on moisture and catalyst 15 minutes to 90% Density

24 Hours to 100% Density

Compressive Strength N/A Free Rise

1,812 PSI (confined with Sand)

30 to 90 PSA Free Rise

<8000 PSI (confined with Soil)

Installation

Permeation grout utilizes a box truck and airless sprayer to deliver the grout with a wheeled gas generator. The product is pumped from a drum/pail and requires available moisture and a catalyst to cure.   The one-part grout is injected through 5/8” diameter steel tubing at a spacing of 3.0’ to 6.0’ centers.

The steel tubing is driven to the lowest targeted (termination) depth in a 90% vertical alignment.  As injection begins, the tubing is extracted during the injection and may be reused. The first and final injections are at 1.5 gallons and intermediate injections are at 1.0 gallon per foot.  Permeation grouting requires no monitoring for movement due to its low expansive qualities.

Polyurethane grout utilizes a fully self-contained injection rig with a 60kW diesel generator set, a 5hp 23 CFM air compressor and a refrigerated dryer/regulation system.  The systems use double diaphragm feed pumps and an impingement-style gun.

The ½” diameter steel tubing is driven down to discrete injection elevations.  The multiple injection elevations result in stacked spheres of polymer with the tubing being sacrificial upon completion of injection.  The tubing can be angled for void fill or centerline foundation repairs.  Due to the highly expansive qualities of the two-part chemical grout, monitoring for movement is required using a laser level.

Installation Comparison

Permeation Grout Polyurethane Grout
Installation Concept Columnar Spherical
Installation Method Extracting Tube Discrete Point Injection
Hole Diameter 7/8” ½”
Angled Injection Capable No Yes
Injection Spacing 3.0’ to 6.0’ 3.0’ to 6.0’
Water Sensitivity Requires the right mixture of moisture and catalyst.  Too much water can result in application not to cure.

 

Hydro-insensitive, is not affected by water
Equipment Box Truck

5 Gallon Drums

Airless Sprayer

Gas Generator

Self-contained Injection Rig

60kW diesel generator

CFM air compressor

Refrigerated/regulated system

Impingement Gun

Double diaphragm feed pumps


What about Costs?

When it comes to cost, there really isn’t a comparison between permeation and polyurethane grout.  This is for a variety of reasons, but the primary reason is that permeation grout takes nearly 200 – 400% more material than polyurethane grout, resulting in double to triple the cost.  Other aspects have to do with the multiple methods for installing polyurethane grout, whether through lateral injections or in highly saturated environments.

Advantages of Permeation vs Polyurethane Grouting

Permeation grouting has a couple of advantages over polyurethane.  The major advantage is that permeation grout can be used in fine sands and silty environments.  This is because permeation is the primary method in which the permeation grout is utilized (hence the name), allowing the grout to saturate the layer and the time to saturate throughout the soils.  Polyurethane grout is dependent on its expansion as a method for densification. Due to polyurethane’s limited ability to permeate fine sands and silts, the expansion pushes sandy soil layers opposed to binding, compression and stabilization.  This limits polyurethane’s ability to densify in these environments.

The limited expansion of permeation grout can avoid over-lifting issues that polyurethane may cause.  If polyurethane is overshot, then the polymer can damage sensitive structures, such as brick manholes or dilapidated CMP.  This being said, there are several examples in which two-part grouts are used to both stabilize and re-grout compromised brick manholes and CMP, so perhaps this is a matter of contractor expertise

Soil density and PSI are more consistent with permeation grout.  This allows designers to provide a more consistent and predictable pressure in the treated area.  Predictability is important to those that need to meet specific can be important depending on the situation. This an additional benefit when using permeation grout for tunneling and excavation, as the concentration of the grout is highly predictable and allows for the area of influence to be calculable when trying to design an excavation zone that is properly shored.

Advantages of Polyurethane vs Permeation Grouting

Firstly (and to some most importantly), polyurethane is by far a more cost-effective option and has a great deal more adaptability than permeation grout.  Although polyurethane is less effective in highly plastic and fine soils, it is highly effective in aggregates, soils with low granularity and where voids are present.   In these environments, polyurethane can provide higher pressure and compressibility than permeation grout.

Polyurethane is also not as sensitive as permeation grout in regards to soil conditions.  It is not dependent on moisture and is still effective in highly saturated environments.  Additionally, polyurethane’s cure time is fast, setting up to 90% density in 15 minutes whereas permeation grout requires approximately 24 hours in optimal situations.

Adaptability is a major advantage of polyurethane.  While permeation grout requires a vertical column in order to install, polyurethane can be shot both vertically and horizontally.  This allows for injections to occur from inside of the lateral line, manhole or culvert.   Additionally, the permeation and expansive stages of polyurethane help the polymer seek out any present voids and allow it to travel along structures to encapsulate and seal joint separation, voids around the structure and/or loose soils and aggregate.  Also, polyurethane can be used to lift and realign structures based on specifically designed injection patterns that lead to upward or lateral movement.

Weight is another area where polyurethane has an advantage over permeation grout.  The primary cause of this is due to the high expansion and close-celled nature of polyurethane.  Permeation grout works by densifying the soil layer with high saturation, requiring a great deal of product to rehabilitate a single soil layer.  The weight differences can range from 2-300% more than polyurethane.  With this being said, it really depends on the weights of polyurethane that is being used as there are variations of 2lb all the way to 8lb polymers that are uniquely designed for the application.

Scorecard – Permeation vs Polyurethane Grout

Permeation Grout Two-Part Chemical Grout
Cost Winner
Sandy and Silty Soils Winner
Adaptability of Installation Winner
Wet or Saturated Environments Winner
Void Fill Winner
Risk of Structural Damage due to expansion Winner
Weight Winner
Expansion Winner
Cure Time Winner
Highly Granular Soils Winner
Lifting and Leveling Winner
Predictability Winner


Conclusion

While on paper Two-Part Chemical Grout has more advantages than permeation grout, these advantages are still situational and to the preference of the owner/designer.  The importance of these factors are only relatable to the needs of the project and to the value placed by the decision makers.   Polyurethane is still a relatively new product being used for sewer rehabilitation applications, but it offers promising results when the benefits are understood and when the right contractor is involved in the design and installation.  Also to note, both permeation and polyurethane grout have a wide range of formulations and installation techniques that may overcome some of their weaknesses.

Healthy Spillways, Safe Communities

Assess and Sustain Spillways with EagleLIFT’s Scan and Repair Process

Red-flags are being raised throughout California regarding the health of its spillways and flood control structures. The recent drought has left our spillways largely untested and, as we are finding out, that doesn’t mean they haven’t been compromised.
The task seems daunting in such a short timeline, but it may not be as complex as it seems.

EagleLIFT’s Scan and Repair approach is a cost-effective method for identifying issues and then repairing the problems quickly and cost-effectively. Firstly, detecting the problem is the main focus. For this we utilize a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) system to scan the entire spillway and determine if there are any voids present. If voids are present, we then fill the voids and stabilize the structure with our polymer injection application.

DSCF9836EagleLIFT specializes in restoring the weight-bearing capacity of soils using the patented URETEK Deep Injection Process. This method of repair is done by injecting a high-density structural polyurethane into the problem zones in a specially designed
injection pattern that fills any present voids and densifies and repairs the soil for its designed use.

In addition to void detection and soil repair, EagleLIFT is also a class “A” General Contractor, so if any additional engineering or repair methods are required, we can bring on the contractor as needed to complete the rehabilitation. We also have
strong bonding capability, safety performance and extensive experience on public works applications.

If you would like any information on our Scan and Repair spillway maintenance program, please submit your information here or call Derek Berthelot by phone (877) 752-2522 or by email at derekb@eaglelifting.com.

Watch the URETEK Polymer Injection process stabilize an outfall during heavy floods
View our Flood Services Video here.

With Rains and Floods Comes Settlement and Decisions

We have had the Northern California and Nevada regions in our thoughts and prayers as flooding has ravaged the areas causing substantial damage to personal and public property and structures. As the water recedes, there may be structural damage that may need to be addressed immediately to ensure further damage does not occur due to settlement or further soil erosion.

As water moves, soil moves, it is a fundamental concept of erosion. Moving or shifting soil causes base support soils to erode and leads to structural settlement, voids, or shifting structures. In these cases, it is usually best to address the issue as fast as possible as the soil weight-bearing capacity needs should be restored.

Affected structures vary, from residential and commercial buildings to sewer and roadway infrastructure. There are many ways to deal with these issues in a time and cost-efficient manner. Here are some solutions for your needs.

Determining the cause of your problem

You must ensure that the cause of your problems is known.  Without this, any proposed solution for your structure may be inadequate or too costly for the repair.  If you are going to invest the money in repairing your property, then you should be sure the repair is successful and cost effective.

Soil Repair

If the soil supporting the structure was compromised, any present voids need to be filled and the soil’s weight-bearing capacity re-established. Void filling and soil stabilization can be done using the EagleLIFT polymer injection process. Once injected, the polymer will actively seek out any voids below the structure and throughout the soil.   The polymer will then begin to expand and densify, restoring or improving the weight-bearing capacity of the soil. The soil repair process is used for a variety of applications including roadway repair, embankment stabilization, dam repair and levee reinforcement and infrastructure sealing.

Structural realignment

EagleLIFT offers two forms of structural lifting and realignment, utilizing the polymer injection process or through the use of helical and push piers.  If a good option, EagleLIFT’s polymer injection process is by far the most cost-effective solution for lifting.  A proprietary injection pattern is used to allow the polymer’s expansive qualities provide upward, which can result in foundation or structural realignment.

Roadway Repair

Flooding and soil saturation can cause roadways, culverts and bridge approach slabs to sink or become unstable, due to the base soil being undermined by washout or infiltration of the soil into manholes, culverts, and lateral lines.  With the use of the EagleLIFT polymer injection application, the soils are stabilized, the infrastructure is sealed, and the structures roadway or bridge approach slab can be leveled and restored to use.  The application is quick and cost-effective and can be completed on an emergency basis.

Outfall, Emergency Levee and Dam repair

Water control structures are needed to hold back the floods and if undermined can cause the waters to impact areas they were designed to protect.  The Polymer injection application can be used to stabilize these structures by binding the soils and increasing their weight-bearing capacity.  This can be used to help the soils from being undermined due to washout.

Conclusion

The EagleLIFT team is here to help you combat the issues that are being created by these floods.  If you need any help, please contact Derek Berthelot at derekb@eaglelifting.com.

EagleLIFT becomes fully integrated Class A Engineering Contractor by hiring full time Professional Engineer

Rancho Cucamonga, CA – EagleLift, Inc. a Class A General Engineering contractor specializing in foundation lifting and soil stabilization, has hired a full-time Professional Engineer to head its Engineering Department. EagleLIFT has hired Pablo C. Naranjo, P.E., G.E. , as Senior Geotechnical Engineer.

Mr. Naranjo has over 20 years’ experience working in slope stabilization, geotechnical engineering, and foundation investigations and design. He has worked with international firms including Langan Engineering and URS Corporation. Mr. Naranjo holds a BS in Civil Engineering from the Universidad Autonoma de Guadalajara in Mexico and a MS in Geotechnical Engineering from the University of Idaho.

“The addition of Pablo to the EagleLIFT family provides our customers with a full service contractor for their geotechnical repair needs,” states Don Moody, President of EagleLIFT. “Pablo is an expert in foundation repair and soil stabilization and he will help further our innovative processes and applications.”

EagleLIFT offers a comprehensive suite of technologies for rehabilitating structures that have been compromised by unconsolidated soils or a variety of other geotechnical issues.

“EagleLIFT offers the URETEK Injection Process and piering applications for foundation rehabilitation, soil stabilization, roadway lifting, and culvert and sewer sealing,” states Mr. Naranjo. “I have worked with these applications for many years in both design and project engineering. I am excited to be on the EagleLIFT team and to help advance our customers’ project designs.”

EagleLIFT services the states of Nevada, California and Arizona.

It has operational locations in Southern and Northern California, Nevada and Arizona. EagleLIFT is a Class A General Engineering Contractor and a Veteran Owned Small Business headquartered in Rancho Cucamonga, CA.

Happy Thanksgiving from EagleLIFT!

At EagleLIFT we are thankful for all that we have, for being in business, for having a great team, for our country, and for our wonderful customers.  We love what we do and we are thankful to be doing it. 

We want to wish you a Happy Thanksgiving!

We hope you are able to take the time to enjoy your family, friends and loved ones.

“Geotechnical Aspects of Polyurethane Grout” Webinar Provides Engineers with Insight into the power of polymer

“Geotechnical Aspects of Polyurethane Grout” Webinar Provides Engineers with Insight into the power of polymer

Technical webinar on utilizing polyurethane grout Injection for chemical grouting and soil stabilization

Today, EagleLIFT hosted a webinar with guest speaker Randy Post, Senior Engineer, Golder Associates, on the “Geotechnical Aspects of Polyurethane Grout.”  The webinar provided deep insight on the applications of utilizing polyurethane grout for geotechnical applications, such as foundation repair, sewer repair, inflow and infitration mitigation, soil stabilization and slope stabilization.

The well attended event was the latest in a series of educational webinars that EagleLIFT is hosting to help provide educational opportunities for geotechnical engineers, civil engineers, environmental consultants, public works managers and faciltiy owners to learn how polyurethane grout may be a tool for them.

The webinar featured guest speaker Randy Post, Senior Engineer, Golder Associates, and EagleLIFT’s Regional Consultant Brendan Barrett.

Randy Post is a registered Civil Engineer (AZ) practicing in geotechnical engineering, specializing in transportation, infrastructure, mining, and large facilities. He specializes in complex geotechnical projects involving bridges, retaining walls and large cut and fill slopes. He is a geological engineer has been very useful in working on projects involving rock slopes, rockfall, and geologic hazards. He also founded GeoPrac.net in 2007, a news blog and community site for geotechnical and geological engineers.

The hour long webinar was concluded with an in depth question and answer session, whereby engineers from across the country challenged Mr. Post and Mr. Barrett with interesting perspective, testing methods and applications for the polyurethane grout.

“I would like to thank Randy Post for sharing his in-depth knowledge for using polyurethane grout for geotechnical applications,” states Don Moody, President and Owner of EagleLIFT.  “Randy lends a highly technical perspective on the effective uses and limitations of polyurethane grout.  EagleLIFT is a knowledge provider and contractor and we want to make sure our customers are fully educated on our applications and approaches.”

Below is a recording of the webinar and a downloadable version of the presentation.

View a recording of the video here

Download the presentation here
Polyurethane Grout Webinar

Southern California Drainage Channel Repair

EagleLIFT Provides Drainage Channel Repair at Riverside College from Water Intrusion

Drainage Channel Repair included Lifting and Leveling of structure and joint sealing against water intrusion

In the southwestern United States, Drainage channels are an important infrastructure tool for ensuring heavy rain events do not cause flash floods and subsequent property damage.  Maintaining these systems is essential to make sure that communities are protected and public works systems, such as roadways, are not interrupted due to washout or pooling water. Riverside City College, located in Riverside, CA, was experiencing problems with a portion of its drainage channel and contacted EagleLIFT to perform the drainage channel repair.

Riverside Drainage Channel Repair

Riverside City College (RCC) had approximately 450 linear feet of its drainage channel that had become undermined by water that was traveling underneath the concrete panels.  The water began to washout the base support soils of the channel, causing voids and settlement along the channel’s bottom and sidewalls.  The College was seeking a cost-effective solution to extend the life of the drainage structure and to avoid the cost of rip and replace.

EagleLIFT recommended and was contracted to perform the URETEK Method to stabilize the panels, fill the voids, and seal the joints to restore the water flow over the channel.  The URETEK Method is a process whereby an industrial grade, high-density polyurethane is injected through 5/8” holes directly into the weak soil zones to stabilize, compact and densify the area.  Once injected, the polymer initially moves throughout the injection point in liquid form, aggressively seeking voids and the path of least resistance, and then it begins to expand throughout the soil media and densify the soil.

Southern California Drainage Channel Repair
EagleLIFT utilized a 4ft injection pattern along the bottom of the drainage structure and half way up the sidewalls.  The pattern design was intended to provide consistent void fill and to adjoin the material to provide effective undersealing of the concrete panels.  Since the URETEK polymers are hydrophobic, the material would push out any sitting water and protect the panels against future water intrusion.

EagleLIFT worked as subcontractor under Three Peaks Construction, who was contracted to install an epoxy overlay over certain areas of the channel after the voids were filled. EagleLIFT coordinated all activities with Three Peaks Construction and RCC maintenance staff to ensure work did not interfere with College operations.

Results

All voids under the areas of concern were filled with material usage coming in at 25% under budget.  RCC was able to use the cost savings for additional repair projects that they did not anticipate having the funding to complete.  The project was also completed without any interruption to RCC’s operations.